Maximum length sequences (or m-sequences) are bit sequences generated using maximal LFSRs (Linear Feedback Shift Registers) and are so called because they are periodic and reproduce every binary sequence that can be represented by the shift registers (i.e., for length-m registers they produce a sequence of length ). Although originally defined for binary sequences, the concept of m-sequence can be extended to sequences over .

Despite being deterministically generated, *m-sequences* have nice statistical properties, which resemble those of white noise (they are spectrally flat, with the exception of a near-zero constant term). For this reason, *m-sequences* are often referred to as pseudo random noise code (PN code). Unfortunately though, unpredictability is not among those properties (see below).

The configuration of the feedback taps in a binary LFSR can be expressed in finite field arithmetic as a polynomial in . The LFSR is maximal-length if and only if the corresponding feedback polynomial is primitive. The linear complexity (LC) of a given periodic sequence is the number of cells in the shortest LFSR that can generate that sequence. The correlation between two sequences is the complex inner product of the first sequence with a shifted version of the second sequence. It is called an *autocorrelation* if the two sequences are the same or a *cross-correlation* if they are distinct. Particularly interesting for spread spectrum application are sequences (not necessarily* m-sequences*) that exhibit low autocorrelation and low cross-correlation (the ideal correlation function would then be the Kronecker’s delta).

Apart from spread spectrum communications, *m-sequences* are used in a variety of areas including digital watermarking and cryptography. As *m-sequences* are derived from linear recurrence relations — which lead to fairly easy cryptanalysis — they must be processed by nonlinear functions in order to be used in cryptographic applications. A good example is Trivium, a 80-bit stream cipher that consists of three shift registers of different lengths.

#!/usr/bin/python3 # # Author: Joao H de A Franco (jhafranco@acm.org) # # Description: N-ary sequence generator in Python # # Version: 1 # # Date: 2014-02-14 # # License: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported # (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0) #=========================================================== from functools import reduce from fractions import Fraction from cmath import rect,pi def flatList(s,q): """Converts (list of) polynomials into (list of) elements of finite field mapped as integers. s: list of polynomials q: order of finite field""" if type(s[0]) is int: return s elif type(s[0]) is list: return [reduce(lambda i,j:(i*q)+j,e) for e in s] else: raise TypeError def printListOfNumbers(S,L,*X): """Print list of numbers according to their particular format (integer, float or complex)""" print(S+" [",end="") for i,e in enumerate(L): if type(e) is complex: print("{:5.3f}{:+5.3f}i".format(e.real,e.imag),end="") elif type(e) is float: print("{:5.3f}".format(e),end="") elif type(e) is int: print("{:d}".format(e),end="") elif type(e) is Fraction: print("{:s}".format(e),end="") else: raise TypeError if i<len(L)-1: print(", ",end="") print("]",*X) def xac(s,q=None,d=None,n=None): """Evaluates the complex auto-correlation of a periodic sequence with increasing delays within the period. Input length must correspond to a full period. s: q-ary periodic sequence q: order of finite field d: maximum denominator allowed in fractions n: number of decimal places in floating point numbers""" return xcc(s,s,q,d,n) def xcc(s1,s2,q=None,d=None,n=None): """Evaluates the complex cross-correlation between two equally periodic q-ary sequences with increasing delays within the period. Input length must correspond to a full period. s: q-ary periodic sequence q: order of finite field d: maximum denominator allowed in fractions n: number of decimal places in floating point numbers""" def cc(s1,s2): """Evaluates the complex correlation between two equally periodic numerical sequences. s1,s2: q-ary periodic sequences""" assert type(s1[0]) == type(s2[0]) if type(s1[0]) is list: s3 = [[(j-i)%q for i,j in zip(u,v)] for u,v in zip(s1,s2)] s4 = [reduce(lambda x,y:(x*q)+y,e) for e in s3] z = sum(rect(1,2*pi*i/q) for i in s4)/len(s1) elif type(s1[0]) is int: z = sum(rect(1,2*pi*(j-i)/q) for i,j in zip(s1,s2))/len(s1) else: raise TypeError zr,zi = round(z.real,n),round(z.imag,n) if abs(zi%1)<10**-n: if abs(zr-round(zr))<10**-n: return int(zr) elif Fraction(z.real).limit_denominator().denominator<=d: return Fraction(z.real).limit_denominator() else: return zr else: return complex(zr,zi) q = 2 if q is None else q d = 30 if d is None else d n = 3 if n is None else n assert len(s1) == len(s2) return [cc(s1,s2[i:]+s2[:i]) for i in range(len(s1))] def LFSR(P,S,M,N,K): """Outputs K-ary sequence with N elements. Each element is derived from M successive values of the LFSR sequence generated by polynomial P and initial state S. Polynomial P is represented by a list of coefficients in decreasing power order.""" def LFSR2(): """Generates linear K-ary sequence according to polynomial P and initial state S. If P is primitive, sequence length is exactly one period.""" seq,st = [S[-1]],S for j in range(K**len(S)-2): st0 = sum([i*j for i,j in zip(st,P[1:])])%K st = [st0]+st[:-1] seq += [st[-1]] return seq assert len(P) > 1 and len(P)-1 == len(S) s = LFSR2() L = len(s) assert M <= L return [s[i%L] if M == 1 else (s[i%L:]+s[:i%L])[:M] for i in range(N)] if __name__ == "__main__": # Binary sequence over GF(2) generated by the LFSR # defined by non primitive polynomial x⁴+x³+x+1. # This is not a m-sequence since its period is 6 # (<15 = 2⁴-1) s01 = LFSR([1,1,0,1,1],[0,0,0,1],1,15,2) print("s01 =",s01,"\n")

```
s01 = [1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0]
```

# Sequence over GF(2⁴) derived from sequence "s01". # The polynomial elements were also mapped to integers # in Z16, in order to show the period. s04 = LFSR([1,1,0,1,1],[0,0,0,1],4,15,2) print("s04 =",s04,"\n") print("s04 =",flatList(s04,2),"\n")

```
s04 = [[1, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 1], [0, 0, 1, 1], [0, 1, 1, 1],
[1, 1, 1, 0], [1, 1, 0, 0], [1, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 1],
[0, 0, 1, 1], [0, 1, 1, 1], [1, 1, 1, 0], [1, 1, 0, 0],
[1, 0, 0, 1], [0, 0, 1, 0], [0, 1, 0, 0]]
s04 = [8, 1, 3, 7, 14, 12, 8, 1, 3, 7, 14, 12, 9, 2, 4]
```

# m-sequence over GF(2) generated by the LFSR defined # by the primitive polynomial x⁴+x+1. Its period is # equal to 2⁴-1=15 s11 = LFSR([1,1,0,0,1],[0,0,0,1],1,15,2) print("s11 =",s11,"\n")

```
s11 = [1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0]
```

# Autocorrelation of m-sequence "s11". This function # is two-valued and has the same period as sequence # "s11" printListOfNumbers("ac(s11) =",xac(s11),"\n")

```
ac(s11) = [1, -1/15, -1/15, -1/15, -1/15, -1/15, -1/15, -1/15,
-1/15, -1/15, -1/15, -1/15, -1/15, -1/15, -1/15]
```

# Sequence over GF(2²) derived from m-sequence "s11" s12 = LFSR([1,0,0,1,1],[0,0,0,1],2,15,2) print("s12 =",s12,"\n")

```
s12 = [[1, 0], [0, 0], [0, 0], [0, 1], [1, 0], [0, 0], [0, 1],
[1, 1], [1, 0], [0, 1], [1, 0], [0, 1], [1, 1], [1, 1], [1, 1]]
```

# Autocorrelation of sequence "s12" printListOfNumbers("ac(s12) =",xac(s12,4),"\n")

```
ac(s12) = [1, 7/15, 7/15, 7/15, 7/15, 7/15, 7/15, 7/15, 7/15,
7/15, 7/15, 7/15, 7/15, 7/15, 7/15]
```

# Sequence over GF(2³) derived from m-sequence "s11" s13 = LFSR([1,0,0,1,1],[0,0,0,1],3,15,2) print("s13 =",s13,"\n")

```
s13 = [[1, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 1], [0, 1, 0], [1, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 1], [0, 1, 1], [1, 1, 0], [1, 0, 1], [0, 1, 0],
[1, 0, 1], [0, 1, 1], [1, 1, 1], [1, 1, 1], [1, 1, 0]]
```

# Autocorrelation of sequence "s13" printListOfNumbers("ac(s13) =",xac(s13,8,d=1000),"\n")

```
ac(s13) = [1, 0.844, 0.844, 0.844, 0.844, 0.844, 0.844, 0.844,
0.844, 0.844, 0.844, 0.844, 0.844, 0.844, 0.844]
```

# Sequence over GF(2⁴) derived from the m-sequence "s11" s14 = LFSR([1,0,0,1,1],[0,0,0,1],4,15,2) print("s14 =",s14,"\n")

```
s14 = [[1, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 1], [0, 0, 1, 0], [0, 1, 0, 0],
[1, 0, 0, 1], [0, 0, 1, 1], [0, 1, 1, 0], [1, 1, 0, 1],
[1, 0, 1, 0], [0, 1, 0, 1], [1, 0, 1, 1], [0, 1, 1, 1],
[1, 1, 1, 1], [1, 1, 1, 0], [1, 1, 0, 0]]
```

# Autocorrelation of sequence "s14" printListOfNumbers("ac(s14) =",xac(s14,16,d=1000),"\n")

```
ac(s14) = [1, 0.959, 0.959, 0.959, 0.959, 0.959, 0.959, 0.959,
0.959, 0.959, 0.959, 0.959, 0.959, 0.959, 0.959]
```

# Binary sequence over GF(2) generated by the LFSR # defined by the primitive polynomial (x⁴+x³+1). # This is also a m-sequence with period equal to # 15 = 2⁴-1 s21 = LFSR([1,0,0,1,1],[0,0,0,1],1,15,2) print("s21 =",s21,"\n")

```
s21 = [1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1]
```

# Autocorrelation of sequence "s21" printListOfNumbers("ac(s21) =",xac(s21),"\n")

```
ac(s21) = [1, -1/15, -1/15, -1/15, -1/15, -1/15, -1/15,
-1/15, -1/15, -1/15, -1/15, -1/15, -1/15, -1/15, -1/15]
```

# Cross-correlation between m-sequences "s11" and "s21". # This function is four-valued and has the same period # as sequences "s11" and "s21" printListOfNumbers("cc(s11,s21) =",xcc(s11,s21),"\n")

```
cc(s11,s21) = [-1/15, 1/5, -1/15, 7/15, 1/5, -1/3, -1/15,
1/5, 7/15, -1/3, 1/5, -1/3, -1/3, -1/15, -1/15]
```

# m-sequence over GF(3) generated by the LFSR defined # by the primitive polynomial x²+2x+1. Its period is # equal to 3²-1=8 s31 = LFSR([1,2,1],[1,0],1,8,3) print("s31 =",s31,"\n")

```
s31 = [0, 1, 2, 2, 0, 2, 1, 1]
```

# Autocorrelation of sequence "s31" printListOfNumbers("ac(s31) =",xac(s31,3),"\n")

```
ac(s31) = [1, -1/8, -1/8, -1/8, -1/8, -1/8, -1/8, -1/8]
```

# Sequence over GF(3²) derived from m-sequence "s31" s32 = LFSR([1,2,1],[1,0],2,8,3) print("s32 =",s32,"\n")

```
s32 = [[0, 1], [1, 2], [2, 2], [2, 0], [0, 2], [2, 1], [1, 1], [1, 0]]
```

# Autocorrelation of sequence "s32" printListOfNumbers("ac(s32) =",xac(s32,3),"\n")

```
ac(s32) = [1, -1/8, -1/8, -1/8, -1/8, -1/8, -1/8, -1/8]
```

# Sequence over GF(3³) derived from m-sequence "s31" s33 = LFSR([1,2,1],[1,0],3,8,3) print("s33 =",s33,"\n")

```
s33 = [[0, 1, 2], [1, 2, 2], [2, 2, 0], [2, 0, 2],
[0, 2, 1], [2, 1, 1], [1, 1, 0], [1, 0, 1]]
```

# Autocorrelation of sequence "s33" printListOfNumbers("ac(s33) =",xac(s33,3),"\n")

```
ac(s33) = [1, -1/8, -1/8, -1/8, -1/8, -1/8, -1/8, -1/8]
```

# m-sequence over GF(3) generated by the LFSR defined # by the primitive polynomial x³+x²+2. Its period is # equal to 3³-1=26 s41 = LFSR([1,1,0,2],[1,0,0],1,26,3) print("s41 =",s41,"\n")

```
s41 = [0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 2, 1, 1, 2, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 2, 2, 2, 0, 1,
2, 2, 1, 2, 0, 2]
```

# Autocorrelation of m-sequence "s41". This function is # two-valued and has the same period as sequence "s41" printListOfNumbers("ac(s41) =",xac(s41,3),"\n")

```
ac(s41) = [1, -1/26, -1/26, -1/26, -1/26, -1/26, -1/26, -1/26, -1/26,
-1/26, -1/26, -1/26, -1/26, -1/26, -1/26, -1/26, -1/26, -1/26,
-1/26, -1/26, -1/26, -1/26, -1/26, -1/26, -1/26, -1/26]
```

# Sequence over GF(3²) derived from m-sequence "s41" s42 = LFSR([1,1,0,2],[1,0,0],2,26,3) print("s42 =",s42,"\n")

```
s42 = [[0, 0], [0, 1], [1, 1], [1, 1], [1, 0], [0, 2],
[2, 1], [1, 1], [1, 2], [2, 1], [1, 0], [0, 1],
[1, 0], [0, 0], [0, 2], [2, 2], [2, 2], [2, 0],
[0, 1], [1, 2], [2, 2], [2, 1], [1, 2], [2, 0],
[0, 2], [2, 0]]
```

# Autocorrelation of sequence "s42" printListOfNumbers("ac(s42) =",xac(s42,9),"\n")

```
ac(s42) = [1, 0.701, 0.701, 0.701, 0.701, 0.701, 0.701,
0.701, 0.701, 0.701, 0.701, 0.701, 0.701, 0.838,
0.701, 0.701, 0.701, 0.701, 0.701, 0.701, 0.701,
0.701, 0.701, 0.701, 0.701, 0.701]
```

# Sequence over GF(3³) derived from m-sequence "s31" s43 = LFSR([1,1,0,2],[1,0,0],3,26,3) print("s43 =",s43,"\n")

```
s43 = [[0, 0, 1], [0, 1, 1], [1, 1, 1], [1, 1, 0],
[1, 0, 2], [0, 2, 1], [2, 1, 1], [1, 1, 2],
[1, 2, 1], [2, 1, 0], [1, 0, 1], [0, 1, 0],
[1, 0, 0], [0, 0, 2], [0, 2, 2], [2, 2, 2],
[2, 2, 0], [2, 0, 1], [0, 1, 2], [1, 2, 2],
[2, 2, 1], [2, 1, 2], [1, 2, 0], [2, 0, 2],
[0, 2, 0], [2, 0, 0]]
```

# Autocorrelation of sequence "s43" printListOfNumbers("ac(s43) =",xac(s43,27),"\n")

```
ac(s43) = [1, 0.963, 0.963, 0.963, 0.963, 0.963, 0.963,
0.963, 0.963, 0.963, 0.963, 0.963, 0.963, 0.981,
0.963, 0.963, 0.963, 0.963, 0.963, 0.963, 0.963,
0.963, 0.963, 0.963, 0.963, 0.963]
```

# Sequence over Z20 with ideal autocorrelation function # (Kronecker's delta) s51 = [t**2%20 for t in range(10)] print("s51 =",s51,"\n")

```
s51 = [0, 1, 4, 9, 16, 5, 16, 9, 4, 1]
```

# Autocorrelation of sequence "s51" printListOfNumbers("xac(s51) =",xac(s51,20),"\n")

```
xac(s51) = [1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]
```

# Sequence over Z7 with ideal autocorrelation function # (Kronecker's delta) s61 = [(t*(t+1)//2)%7 for t in range(7)] print("s61 =",s61,"\n")

```
s61 = [0, 1, 3, 6, 3, 1, 0]
```

# Autocorrelation of sequence "s61" printListOfNumbers("xac(s61) =",xac(s61,7),"\n")

```
xac(s61) = [1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]
```