Simplified DES implementation in Python

Simplified DES (SDES) is a cryptographic algorithm developed by Edward Schaefer in 1986 with educational purposes and published in “A simplified data encryption algorithm”, Cryptologia, 20(1):77–84. Simplified DES is considered a “toy” crypto algorithm since it uses a very short key (10-bits). Messages encrypted with SDES can be broken by brute force in a tiny fraction of a second, after only 512 trials on average. Nevertheless, it helps students grasp some features of its strong brother, the Data Encryption Standard (DES), without the complexities of a real world algorithm. SDES accepts an 8-bit block as input (plaintext) and produces an 8-bit block (ciphertext) in just 2 rounds. Compare these numbers with those of DES: 64-bit block, 56-bits key, 16 rounds. As mentioned in a previous post, DES implementation in Python, implementing SDES in Python was my warm-up session before coding DES.

#!/usr/bin/python3
#
# Author: Joao H de A Franco (jhafranco@acm.org)
#
# Description: Simplified DES implementation in Python 3
#
# Date: 2012-02-10
#
# License: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
#          (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)
#===========================================================
from sys import exit
from time import time

KeyLength = 10
SubKeyLength = 8
DataLength = 8
FLength = 4

# Tables for initial and final permutations (b1, b2, b3, ... b8)
IPtable = (2, 6, 3, 1, 4, 8, 5, 7)
FPtable = (4, 1, 3, 5, 7, 2, 8, 6)

# Tables for subkey generation (k1, k2, k3, ... k10)
P10table = (3, 5, 2, 7, 4, 10, 1, 9, 8, 6)
P8table = (6, 3, 7, 4, 8, 5, 10, 9)

# Tables for the fk function
EPtable = (4, 1, 2, 3, 2, 3, 4, 1)
S0table = (1, 0, 3, 2, 3, 2, 1, 0, 0, 2, 1, 3, 3, 1, 3, 2)
S1table = (0, 1, 2, 3, 2, 0, 1, 3, 3, 0, 1, 0, 2, 1, 0, 3)
P4table = (2, 4, 3, 1)

def perm(inputByte, permTable):
    """Permute input byte according to permutation table"""
    outputByte = 0
    for index, elem in enumerate(permTable):
        if index >= elem:
            outputByte |= (inputByte & (128 >> (elem - 1))) >> (index - (elem - 1))
        else:
            outputByte |= (inputByte & (128 >> (elem - 1))) << ((elem - 1) - index)
    return outputByte

def ip(inputByte):
    """Perform the initial permutation on data"""
    return perm(inputByte, IPtable)

def fp(inputByte):
    """Perform the final permutation on data"""
    return perm(inputByte, FPtable)

def swapNibbles(inputByte):
    """Swap the two nibbles of data"""
    return (inputByte << 4 | inputByte >> 4) & 0xff

def keyGen(key):
    """Generate the two required subkeys"""
    def leftShift(keyBitList):
        """Perform a circular left shift on the first and second five bits"""
        shiftedKey = [None] * KeyLength
        shiftedKey[0:9] = keyBitList[1:10]
        shiftedKey[4] = keyBitList[0]
        shiftedKey[9] = keyBitList[5]
        return shiftedKey

    # Converts input key (integer) into a list of binary digits
    keyList = [(key & 1 << i) >> i for i in reversed(range(KeyLength))]
    permKeyList = [None] * KeyLength
    for index, elem in enumerate(P10table):
        permKeyList[index] = keyList[elem - 1]
    shiftedOnceKey = leftShift(permKeyList)
    shiftedTwiceKey = leftShift(leftShift(shiftedOnceKey))
    subKey1 = subKey2 = 0
    for index, elem in enumerate(P8table):
        subKey1 += (128 >> index) * shiftedOnceKey[elem - 1]
        subKey2 += (128 >> index) * shiftedTwiceKey[elem - 1]
    return (subKey1, subKey2)

def fk(subKey, inputData):
    """Apply Feistel function on data with given subkey"""
    def F(sKey, rightNibble):
        aux = sKey ^ perm(swapNibbles(rightNibble), EPtable)
        index1 = ((aux & 0x80) >> 4) + ((aux & 0x40) >> 5) + \
                 ((aux & 0x20) >> 5) + ((aux & 0x10) >> 2)
        index2 = ((aux & 0x08) >> 0) + ((aux & 0x04) >> 1) + \
                 ((aux & 0x02) >> 1) + ((aux & 0x01) << 2)
        sboxOutputs = swapNibbles((S0table[index1] << 2) + S1table[index2])
        return perm(sboxOutputs, P4table)

    leftNibble, rightNibble = inputData & 0xf0, inputData & 0x0f
    return (leftNibble ^ F(subKey, rightNibble)) | rightNibble

def encrypt(key, plaintext):
    """Encrypt plaintext with given key"""
    data = fk(keyGen(key)[0], ip(plaintext))
    return fp(fk(keyGen(key)[1], swapNibbles(data)))

def decrypt(key, ciphertext):
    """Decrypt ciphertext with given key"""
    data = fk(keyGen(key)[1], ip(ciphertext))
    return fp(fk(keyGen(key)[0], swapNibbles(data)))  

if __name__ == '__main__':
    # Test vectors described in "Simplified DES (SDES)"
    # (http://www2.kinneret.ac.il/mjmay/ise328/328-Assignment1-SDES.pdf)

    try:
        assert encrypt(0b0000000000, 0b10101010) == 0b00010001
    except AssertionError:
        print("Error on encrypt:")
        print("Output: ", encrypt(0b0000000000, 0b10101010), "Expected: ", 0b00010001)
        exit(1)
    try:
        assert encrypt(0b1110001110, 0b10101010) == 0b11001010
    except AssertionError:
        print("Error on encrypt:")
        print("Output: ", encrypt(0b1110001110, 0b10101010), "Expected: ", 0b11001010)
        exit(1)
    try:
        assert encrypt(0b1110001110, 0b01010101) == 0b01110000
    except AssertionError:
        print("Error on encrypt:")
        print("Output: ", encrypt(0b1110001110, 0b01010101), "Expected: ", 0b01110000)
        exit(1)
    try:
        assert encrypt(0b1111111111, 0b10101010) == 0b00000100
    except AssertionError:
        print("Error on encrypt:")
        print("Output: ", encrypt(0b1111111111, 0b10101010), "Expected: ", 0b00000100)
        exit(1)

    t1 = time()
    for i in range(1000):
        encrypt(0b1110001110, 0b10101010)
    t2 = time()
    print("Elapsed time for 1,000 encryptions: {:0.3f}s".format(t2 - t1))
    exit()

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s